Makhz (Research Journal) https://ojs.makhz.org.pk/journal <p><strong>Orients Social Research Consultancy (OSRC) Securities Exchange Commission of Pakistan (N0.ARL/INC4757)</strong> is an educational set up to manage the educational and research activities with modern scientific devices for the welfare and to educate the nation with these objectives</p> <ul> <li>To improve the quality of education and research activities</li> <li>To provide the chance to avail modern method of teaching and learning to students, teachers and researchers.</li> <li>To held conferences, lectures, discussions to raise research activities</li> </ul> <p><strong>Makhz</strong> (Research Journal) publishes original and quality research in all disciplines of social sciences. is a <strong>Triple-blind peer-reviewed open access</strong> pure Regional and Local Language based research journal that publish quarterly. This academic research journal addresses both applied and theoretical issues in Humanities in Urdu language as well as Persian, Arabic, and other regional languages. Likely subscribers are universities, research institutions, governmental, non-governmental agencies and individual researchers also.</p> Orients Social Research Consultancy (OSRC) en-US Makhz (Research Journal) 2709-9636 Aesthetic Expression of Personified Characters in the Poems of Majeed Amjad https://ojs.makhz.org.pk/journal/article/view/205 <p>This research paper is centered around the key concept of Personification. The literary device personification symbolizes the attribution of human qualities and sentiments to inanimate or non-living objects. This technique has been used in literature since ancient times. In the modern era, poets are compelled by contemporary requirements to use this technique in their poetry. One such poet is Majeed Amjad whose poetry represents twentieth century. Amjad personifies different aspects and objects of nature in his poems, the study of which is the central aim of this research paper. This paper first highlights the Western understanding of personification by quoting examples. Then it analyzes how different phenomena and objects are personified in Amjad's poetry including trees, grass, leaves, echo, a beggar woman, a blood spot, and many other. This paper brings together the Western and Oriental literary trends in Urdu which marks its vast scope and implies further research in this domain.</p> Bushra Sherreen Copyright (c) 2024 Makhz (Research Journal) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-04-01 2024-04-01 5 2 01 13 10.47205/makhz.2024(5-II)urdu-01 A Research Review of “Dehli Ki Sham” in Postcolonial Context https://ojs.makhz.org.pk/journal/article/view/206 <p>Colonialism may be defined as to control an independent territory by other people without inhabitant will and wish. These people are called colonizers. They make reasonable arrangements for their residence and livelihood and occupy the resources of the local population by usurping their rights. The colonized are outnumbered but cannot challenge the power and resources of the colonizer. They willingly accept the rules laid down by the colonizer. Homi K Bhabha has a unique position and identity in terms of postcolonial studies. His recognition and uniqueness in literature and criticism is his postcolonial concepts, which he elaborated in his book "The Location of Culture" published in 1994. He has added a new chapter in literature and criticism by coining new terms like Mimicry, Hybridity, and Ambivalence. Ahmed Ali’s novel presents every aspect of Muslim life, their culture, daily life, anti-colonial rebellion and partiality and the uniqueness and hybridity of Muslim culture with other Indian cultures. The study shows how the colonizer changes colonized people culture and values for his nefarious purposes.</p> Muhammad Azam Irshaad Begum Copyright (c) 2024 Makhz (Research Journal) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-04-01 2024-04-01 5 2 14 24 10.47205/makhz.2024(5-II)urdu-02 Background of Tareeno Dialect’s Proverbs https://ojs.makhz.org.pk/journal/article/view/207 <p>Tareeno is dialect of Pashto language. Which is spoken in Harnai as well as Sharag, Sinjaive, Chawter and Duki. Tareeno dialect has own folklore. But until now it’s not documented. There are many proverbs in tareeno language, which have been collected and discussed with their meanings researcher in Pashto language in this research paper.</p> Imran Khan Copyright (c) 2024 Makhz (Research Journal) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-04-01 2024-04-01 5 2 25 39 10.47205/makhz.2024(5-II)urdu-03 The Tradition of Composing Travelogue in Okara https://ojs.makhz.org.pk/journal/article/view/209 <p>Travelogue pertains to and is included in such genre of Urdu literature which incorporates foreign literature, literature hunt, adventurous literature and travel diaries of other countries. These travelogues tend to highlight salient features of a particular country, it's literally environment, geography, socio-cultural values, economic and political situation alongside progress in respect of genres of literature. The purpose of writing a travelogue is to inform the readers about personal experiences and allied events. The actual purpose of a travelogue is to arouse longing to know more about alien land and narrate tales of a particular journey. Of allied types of such gener, the history of a Diary can be traced to 2nd century AD. A travelogue specifically comprises of events, expressions and particulars of a journey. Artistically, travelogue is a description which a traveller pens down either during the course of journey or at the end through his observations, feelings and at times at the instance of his heart. Therefore, the real motive of narrating a travelogue is not restricted to history, geography and living standards of a particular area. So with the passage of time, new innovations would be witnessed in connection with genre of travelogue.</p> Shakeel Amjad Sadiq Copyright (c) 2024 Makhz (Research Journal) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-04-01 2024-04-01 5 2 40 50 10.47205/makhz.2024(5-II)urdu-04 Brahui Wasahat (An Overview) https://ojs.makhz.org.pk/journal/article/view/210 <p>Wasahat is main component of any language and Folk literature. It is beauty of every language and literature. In this article Brahui (WASAHAT) highlight and discuss their usage also. In this research Paper discussed and differentiated Brahui (WASAHAT) and Brahui Proverbs with examples.</p> Zahid Hussain Dashti Zia Ur Rehman Baloch Copyright (c) 2024 Makhz (Research Journal) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-04-01 2024-04-01 5 2 51 58 10.47205/makhz.2024(5-II)urdu-05 A Critical Study of Shibli Nomani’s “Seerat-un-Nabi (PBUH)” https://ojs.makhz.org.pk/journal/article/view/211 <p>Sirat-un-Nabi (Life of the Prophet) is a vast and sensitive topic. Just after the Prophet, this topic became very popular beside Tafseer-e-Quran and Hadith. Many prominent scholars took this subject and explore many shades of the life of Holy Prophet. Allama Shibli Noumani is re-known Urdu scholar, historic and poet. His book Seerat-un-Nabi considered one of the important books, which is authentic biography of the Holy Prophet (PBUH). He completed only two volumes of this book, but he in his work proved his expertise. Shibli challenged the orthodontic view point of certified authors whose writings caused confusion with regard to true teachings of Holy Prophet (PBUH). He addressed many queries and succeeded to clarify them within the parameters of Seerat and History. This is a critical review to explore the Artistic aspect of Shibli in light of the Seerat-un-Nabi (PBUH).</p> Fareed Hussaini Shumaila Suleman Copyright (c) 2024 Makhz (Research Journal) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-04-01 2024-04-01 5 2 59 72 10.47205/makhz.2024(5-II)urdu-06 A Technical and Intellectual Review of “Mata Aina” Written by Laiq Zada Laiq https://ojs.makhz.org.pk/journal/article/view/212 <p>Laiq Zada Laiq is a shining star who has contributed many literary marvels to the Pashto literature. He has immensely added in poetry, prose, fiction or drama and column writing or broadcasting ultimately exalting his stature in Pashto literature. This article undertakes a technical and intellectual review of “Mata Aina” his first literary masterpiece in fiction. Technically, all the fictional tales in this book have has narrated the stories concisely in perfect settings and a rational and logical agreement between the events has been preserved. The psychology and age of the characters are also according to the stories and they are the representation of the intellectual situation of our society. Strong scenery in every story is the strength of Mata Aina but the similarity in depiction sometimes makes reading less entertaining. The narration and cohesiveness in the stories also strengthen the quality of this book. In the end, intellectual the book Mata Aina of Laiq Zada Laiq also depicted the lives and society as an essential element of the different fictional tales.</p> Nagina Bibi Copyright (c) 2024 Makhz (Research Journal) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-04-01 2024-04-01 5 2 73 85 10.47205/makhz.2024(5-II)urdu-07 The Terms of "Hikmat-e-Kaleemi" and "Hikmat-e-Firhoani" and a review of the Political and Social Situation of the Islamic World (An Overview) https://ojs.makhz.org.pk/journal/article/view/213 <p>The Publication of Allama Iqbal's Masnawi "Pas Cha Baid Kurd O Aqwam-e-Sharq" was published in 1934.When his message was complete and his philosophy had reached the height of its maturity. In his opening speech, Iqbal he looks like an inquisitive pilgrim of the right path, who is moving towards the goal by taking lessons from observations and experiences in the light of common sense, but in Masnavi, "What should be done to the nations of the East", his position is that of a guide. He is one who is aware of the vicissitudes of the path and wants to benefit others from his experiences. The fourteen topics of Masnawi "Pas Cha Baid Kurd" are of great importance. In Allama Iqbal's Masnawi "Pas Che Baid Kard" the following fourteen topics have been discussed in detail. Especially. "Hikmat-e-Kaleemi" and "Hikmat-e-Firhoani". In these two topics (Good and Evil are discussed), what are the benefits of following the path indicated by Allah? What are the disadvantages of not following the path indicated by Allah? It has been discussed extensively.</p> Talib Hussain Hashmi Syed Shiraz Ali Zaidi Copyright (c) 2024 Makhz (Research Journal) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-04-01 2024-04-01 5 2 86 104 10.47205/makhz.2024(5-II)urdu-08 Research Analysis of "Kulliyat-e-Majeed Amjad" in the Light of Textual Criticism https://ojs.makhz.org.pk/journal/article/view/216 <p>Majeed Amjad is, one of the famous names in modern Urdu poetry. Although his selection of poetry was known in his life and after his demire, for the first time Khwaja M.Zakria compiled his poetry by the title 'Kulliyat-e-Majeed Amjad'. Khawaja M.Zakaria is recognized as an educationist, researcher, critic and compiler. He has many books in this regard, but 'Kulliyat-e-Majeed Amjad' became the reason for his fame. The process of compilation is an arduous enterprise and is bases on extensive research. In this research article, a thorough analysis of 'kulliyat-e-Majeed Amjad' has been made refering to the principles of literary compilation and to evaluate how to successful Khwaja M.Zakria has been in his compilation of the text.</p> Abdullah Naeem Rasul Hafiz Zia Ul Haq Azka Saher Copyright (c) 2024 Makhz (Research Journal) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-04-04 2024-04-04 5 2 105 116 10.47205/makhz.2024(5-II)urdu-09 A Study of Nilofar Iqbal's Short Stories Collection “Siah Sona” https://ojs.makhz.org.pk/journal/article/view/221 <p>"Siah Sona" is Nilofar Iqbal's third and so far his last collection of fiction. Some of his fiction in this collection are reminiscent of his first two fiction collections in terms of technique and subject matter, and some of the fiction are of new technique and unique subject matter. But the flow of style is in all three collections. Her fiction is neither original style nor weighed down by heavy techniques. She chooses this specific style for her fiction writing. That is closer to their mood. In this period when Urdu fiction has explored many possibilities. It is a challenge to make a name in the fiction of narrative tradition and realistic mood, but to get a high position. But Nilofar Iqbal has done her job well.</p> Parveen Kallu Ata Ur Rahman Javez Khan Copyright (c) 2024 Makhz (Research Journal) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-04-06 2024-04-06 5 2 117 136 10.47205/makhz.2024(5-II)urdu-10 Persian Epic writing and its reflection in the Sindhi poetry of Tha’bit Ali Shah (The first Sindhi Elegy writer and his Epic writing in Ferdowsi’s Style) https://ojs.makhz.org.pk/journal/article/view/222 <p>Sayyed Tha’bit Ali Shah is a renowned elegiac poet of the Kalhora and Talpur period who apart from being the first Sindhi poet to introduce elegy in Sindhi poetry, also wrote epic poetry in Ferdowsi's style. Due to the genius of writing elegies in the Sindhi language, he is considered as the greatest elegiac writer of the subcontinent and is called "Anis of Sindh". He wrote elegies and Sindhi poems based on Arabic and Persian prosody and used Persian words, similes, phrases, allusions and metaphors in Sindhi elegies, which were not common in Sindhi poetry before. He has decorated his poetry with allusions, Quranic verses and hadiths. Being influenced by Ferdowsi’s Shahnama, Tha’bit Ali Shah has written an Epic following the same meter and rhyme of Shahnama e Ferdousi regarding the war which took place between the Kalhora and Talpur rulers and has named it “Zafar Nameh”. This poem is one of his masterpieces in Persian language. Tha’bit Ali Shah visited Iran as an embassador of the Talpur rulers, and during his meeting with Fath Ali Shah Qajar, he presented two of his Persian odes which he had written in praise of the Shah of Iran. His odes were appreciated by Fath Ali Shah Qajar. This outstanding poet was proficient in Saraiki, Sindhi, Urdu, Persian and Arabic languages, and his poems are praiseworthy in all four languages.</p> Faizeh Zehra Mirza Copyright (c) 2024 Makhz (Research Journal) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-04-07 2024-04-07 5 2 137 162 10.47205/makhz.2024(5-II)urdu-11 An overview of Wajda Tabassum's Novels and Novelettes https://ojs.makhz.org.pk/journal/article/view/223 <p>Wajida Tabassum has tried to prove that all the work of this world is not done by one man by describing the life of Riji(A character)extensively and deeply in her fitcions. And it is not enough for a person to take responsibility for everything. Every human being sent to this world has a role of his own. It is enough if he plays his role well. Riji took all the work and responsibilities of the world on his head. He also took on the tasks that were not his, that is, when his brother Javed became a doctor, he was going to get married, so now Raji's responsibility was over. Now she too should have thought about her future and had to fill a supporter for the marriage, but after that taking the responsibility of bringing up and taking care of her brother's children was an additional burden. Because of which she goes crazy and when she recovers, the water has gone over her head.</p> Parveen Kallu Nazia Sahar Muhammad Rahman Copyright (c) 2024 Makhz (Research Journal) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-04-09 2024-04-09 5 2 163 183 10.47205/makhz.2024(5-II)urdu-12 The Evolution of Humor in Brahui Literature https://ojs.makhz.org.pk/journal/article/view/225 <p>This article will examine the evolution of humor and satire in Brahui literature. Brahui literature is also progressed in every field of literature. Poet and intellectuals have written many masterpieces of humor in Brahui language. The roots of humor are connecting in the folk literature. In past, Brahui speaking people had gathered at night and used humor and funny tricks for entertainment. Humor not only means to make laughter people but also disclose the weakness of society and show the way of progress. Hence, literature discusses the life of human being and its society. People always read and write literature for the sake of human development and welfare society. Humor also plays vital role in the betterment of human society. Modern literature of Brahui language has progressed in many ways. Now in Brahui literature, humor writing became much popular as other fields of literature.</p> Muhammad Imran Zia Ur Rehman Baloch Nasir Ali Copyright (c) 2024 Makhz (Research Journal) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-04-14 2024-04-14 5 2 184 192 10.47205/makhz.2024(5-II)urdu-13 Comparison of Style and Stylistic Debates https://ojs.makhz.org.pk/journal/article/view/226 <p>In modern Urdu criticism, a trend of stylistic criticism has been seen after linguistics. The scientific study of language is called linguistics whereas the scientific study of style is called stylistics. However, the new student of literature is unable to distinguish between style and stylistic, often moving to style discussion with a focus on stylistic study or analyzing style with a view to stylistic evaluation of a work of art. In this essay, an attempt is made to present the discussions of style and stylistics in such a way that it is easy for the student of literature to distinguish between the two. Style looks at the merits or demerits of many aspects of a work, while stylistics only looks at the use of language and its structure in literature. The main sources of style are author, environment, thought, language and reader, while the source of stylistics is linguistics. There are three main branches of linguistics (historical, descriptive, and applied). Stylistics is studied under Applied Linguistics.</p> Azaadar Hussain Copyright (c) 2024 Makhz (Research Journal) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-04-15 2024-04-15 5 2 193 212 10.47205/makhz.2024(5-II)urdu-14 Review of Deputy Nazeer Ahmad's Novel "Toubat al-Nusuh" and "Fasana Mubtala” (In terms of technique and locale) https://ojs.makhz.org.pk/journal/article/view/229 <p>It is crucial to understand the location and the technique of writing any novel or fiction since it explains the writer's understanding of his surroundings and the grip he has on his characters. The purpose of this paper is to examine the technique and location of Deputy Nazeer Ahmad's novels "Toubat al-Nusuh" and "Fasana Mubtala." In "Toubat al-Nusuh," Deputy Nazeer Ahmad employs a unique writing technique that captures the essence of storytelling. The novel is set in a rural village, providing a vivid portrayal of the local culture, traditions, and way of life. In Fasana Mubtala with a combination of first-person narration and multiple perspectives, Ahmad creates a dynamic and engaging narrative. Additionally, the novel is set in a bustling city, offering a rich depiction of the urban environment and its social dynamics. The local events and little unique things make the writing a historical piece that stores the culture of the people.</p> Humera Suleman Mamuna Subhani Copyright (c) 2024 Makhz (Research Journal) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-04-20 2024-04-20 5 2 213 221 10.47205/makhz.2024(5-II)urdu-15 Asif Farrukhi’s Poems: Thematic and Compositional Study https://ojs.makhz.org.pk/journal/article/view/230 <p>Asif Farrukhi is a multi-dimensional creator. He has rendered valuable services in the field of fiction writing ,criticism and translation but few people in literary world are aware that he also contributed to poetry and published a collection of prose poems .He presented various topics in his own style by his poems. Asif Farrukhi expressed the contemporary situations through his prose poems. He also described the crisis of the country and social situation of Karachi. Asif Farrukhi was an erudite man. He was not only proficient in different languages but also has a deep familiarity with the literature of these languages, so he has used various signs and symbols in his poems. His services are the most valueable asset of literature.</p> Rukhsana Parveen Copyright (c) 2024 Makhz (Research Journal) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-04-21 2024-04-21 5 2 222 233 10.47205/makhz.2024(5-II)urdu-16 The Beginning and Evolution of the Progressive Movement in Saraiki Language https://ojs.makhz.org.pk/journal/article/view/232 <p>The Saraiki language is the language of the central region of the Indus valley. On one hand it is the sister of Sindhi language and on the other hand it is related to Punjabi language and the interesting thing is the same language is spoken and understands in all four provinces of Pakistan. When we search for the effects of the progressive movement in the Saraiki language and literature, its impact of the establishment of Pakistan become more apparent like other regional languages, poetry hold significant in Saraiki literature. Over time, the poets and writers from the Saraiki region have adapted to the changing of time, they changed their thoughts and ideas, the impact of which are seen in their poetry. This article discusses the influence of the progressive movement in Saraiki poetry.</p> Fauzia Perveen Muhammad Arif Muhammad Saleem Copyright (c) 2024 Makhz (Research Journal) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-05-01 2024-05-01 5 2 234 253 10.47205/makhz.2024(5-II)urdu-17 Blank Verse: History and Evolution https://ojs.makhz.org.pk/journal/article/view/234 <p>Blank verse, a form of poetry characterized by its unrhymed lines with a regular meter, has a rich history that spans centuries and cultures. Its evolution can be traced back to the works of ancient Greek and Latin poets, such as Lucretius and Virgil, who employed unrhymed lines in their epic poetry. However, it was during the Renaissance period in England that blank verse truly flourished, notably with the works of William Shakespeare and Christopher Marlowe. These playwrights used blank verse extensively in their plays, elevating it to a prominent position in English literature. Over time, blank verse evolved further, adapting to different languages and poetic traditions, including Urdu poetry. In Urdu poetry, blank verse found its own unique expression, blending with the rich poetic heritage of the language. Urdu poets like Molana Altaf Hussain Hali, Abdul Halim Shararr and Noon Meem Rashid experimented with blank verse, infusing it with the lyrical beauty and emotional depth characteristic of Urdu poetry. The form provided Urdu poets with a flexible structure that allowed for nuanced expression and exploration of diverse themes, ranging from love and longing to social and political commentary. Through its evolution in Urdu poetry, blank verse has contributed significantly to the richness and diversity of the poetic tradition, demonstrating its enduring relevance and adaptability across cultures and languages. In this research article, an attempt has been made to present the history and evolution of blank verse in a useful manner.</p> Abdul Raziq Nasir Ali Rukhshanda Taj Copyright (c) 2024 Makhz (Research Journal) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-05-09 2024-05-09 5 2 254 270 10.47205/makhz.2024(5-II)urdu-18 Use of Proverbs in the Poetry of Shaikh Abdul Rahim Girhorri https://ojs.makhz.org.pk/journal/article/view/235 <p>Shaikh Abudal Raheem Girhorri Mangreio was a prominent poet of Sindhi. He was follower of Pir of Lanwari Sultan-ul-Oliah Muhammad Zaman Lanwaari Waro. Who is also a classical poet and contemporarily of shah Abdul Latif Bhitai. He is the writer of many books. Mysticism is main subject in his poetry. His poetry collection `Shaikh Abdur- Raheem Girhorri jo kalam` had published in 2004 , Complied by Shamsul Ulmau Dr. Umar bin Muhammad Dawood potta. He has Quranic verses, Hadeeth and usage of beautiful and suitable proverbs in his poetry. In this article we have analysis some of proverbs used in his poetry.</p> Safique Ahmed Shahti Abdul Qudus Hassan Rashid Adnan Malik Copyright (c) 2024 Makhz (Research Journal) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-05-12 2024-05-12 5 2 271 282 10.47205/makhz.2024(5-II)urdu-19 Thematic Variety in Fiction of A Khayyam https://ojs.makhz.org.pk/journal/article/view/236 <p>A Khayyam is first of all a dervish writer of fiction who keeps close eye on the environment. Also analyzes incidents and accidents. A Khayyam is a multi-faceted literary personality; he has left deep impressions of his art on many genres of Urdu literature. As an authentic fiction writer, novelist, essayist, and columnist, he has acknowledged his creativity in the world of literature. A Khayyam takes the themes of his fictions from life and the problems faced in it. His fictional collections "kapil Vastu ka shahzada ", Khali Haat, Jannat Jahannam and other fictions deserve to be called the assets of the overall tradition of Urdu fiction. The subject of his is "life". He has been awarded national and international honors in recognition of literary services. A. Khayyam has written on many topics related to history, psychology, social and economic conditions. In this research article, thematic variety in fiction of A Khayyam will be presented.</p> Humaira kousar Tayyaba Night Copyright (c) 2024 Makhz (Research Journal) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-05-14 2024-05-14 5 2 283 293 10.47205/makhz.2024(5-II)urdu-20 Use of Idioms in the Poetry of Syed Khaliqdad Umeed https://ojs.makhz.org.pk/journal/article/view/239 <p>An idiom is a type of phrase or expression that has a meaning that can't be deciphered by defining the individual words, and An idiom can be used in dialogue to give more insight into who a character is. Syed Khaliqdad Umeed has used idioms in a new way in his poetry. In this paper, the use of idioms in the poetry of Syed Khaliqdad Umeed has been researched.</p> Shahab Uddin Mazhar Ahmad Copyright (c) 2024 Makhz (Research Journal) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-05-15 2024-05-15 5 2 294 302 10.47205/makhz.2024(5-II)urdu-21 An Analytical Study of the Two Important Characters “Asrar Mian” and “Chhammi” of Novel “Aangan” https://ojs.makhz.org.pk/journal/article/view/241 <p>Khadija Mastoor is well known fiction writer. She belongs to a family of writers. Her novels and short stories reflect the life with depth. Novel Nigari is a famous novel in history of Urdu literature. This article having critical approach towards its characters. Asrar Mian and Chhammi are the characters, which highlights the civilization and its different angles. After this article these characters can be analyze with their social and civic importance.</p> Majid Mushtaq Samiullah Yaseen Abdullah Raza Copyright (c) 2024 Makhz (Research Journal) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-05-17 2024-05-17 5 2 303 314 10.47205/makhz.2024(5-II)urdu-22 Decline of Indian Civilization in Habib Tanveer's Play "Agra Bazaar" https://ojs.makhz.org.pk/journal/article/view/242 <p>Drama is an ancient and popular genre of literature, it has immense popularity in almost all languages of the world. Genre drama gained its popularity due to the explanations given by Aristotle and Bharata Mini. All the classical dramatists used the same principles of drama in their plays. In the West itself, writers from ancient times followed the principles presented by Aristotle. But in the second decade of the nineteenth century, the famous German dramatist Bertolt Brecht, deviating from the principles created by Aristotle, presented a new principle of dramas, "Epic Theatre" in plays. It became very popular and a new revolution was born in the world of drama and experiments were started in writing plays using this technique of Brecht in different languages. Plays were also written in Urdu inspired by this technique of Brecht. The early effects of which we find in the plays of progressive writers. But the most important and popular name among those who introduced Brecht's technique to the Urdu class in the true sense is that of Habib Tanveer. His drama "Agra Bazaar" is the first Urdu drama to introduce the epic theater technique. Through this play, Habib Tanveer has started regular dramatization in Urdu. Agra Bazaar is the milestone in the history of modern Indian theater or Urdu drama from where Urdu drama begins its journey to a new era of modernity. This drama is considered to be the link between classical and modern drama as it uses classical drama as well as modern drama techniques. The impression left in a stage presentation fade with the passage of time, but that is not the case with Agra Bazaar. Because along with changing times, Habib Tanveer has made many changes in its plot and stories to make it more interesting and meaningful.</p> Shamaila Bibi Tahir Abbas Tayib Copyright (c) 2024 Makhz (Research Journal) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-05-17 2024-05-17 5 2 315 329 10.47205/makhz.2024(5-II)urdu-23 Critical Theories of Kaifi (According to Kaifiyah) https://ojs.makhz.org.pk/journal/article/view/243 <p>Pandit Brij Mohan Dattatreya Kaifi is a well-known Urdu researcher, critique and linguistic. He proposed his critical opinions about linguistics and poetry in the book “Kaifiyah”. He believes on objective, scientific and logical criticism and these perspectives reflects his own theoretical and practical critics. Social perspective reflects in his critical theories and writings. He has a full grip on the fields of his discussion for instance linguistics, grammar and the poetics of poetry. His critical writing style is logical, objective and easy to understand. He builds his own concepts of view by emerging the traditional rules and modern methods. He doesn’t believe to follow a specific school of thought about any argument; instead, he develops his own opinion by keeping the aspects of multiple schools of thoughts in his eyes.</p> Hala Ameena Ali Copyright (c) 2024 Makhz (Research Journal) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-05-18 2024-05-18 5 2 330 352 10.47205/makhz.2024(5-II)urdu-24 Revolutionary Activities of Indian Sufis and Sheikh Sirhindi regarding Social Reforms and Interfaith Harmony: Analytical Study of Imam Rabbani’s Letters https://ojs.makhz.org.pk/journal/article/view/245 <p>Today, many Muslim societies suffer from such insecurity, fear, terror, anarchy, bloodshed, and murder. One of the main reasons for this is that nature has not provided the right opportunities and environment for human beings to satisfy these tender human emotions. Although we are floating with the changing trends of the world like a reed floating in a raging storm of a river without any destination. While on the other hand, Sufis and Sufism have an important and wonderful role for inducing those tender feelings in human beings that creates such a structure that the people of the society are inspired to promote Interfaith harmony between religions and reform the society are assigned In fact, Shaykh Mujaddid al-Thani, and his family, with his reformist teachings, not only reformed the useless system that had been created in the society, but also changed the illegal and false thinking that was prevalent in Sufism. It has revived the doctrine and spirit of Sufism and the authenticity of beliefs in Islam, which has inspired deep reform aspects to promote Interfaith dialogue, peace, and harmony between religions in the society and to address the demand for the progressive rights of humanity in Sufism.</p> Hassan Baig Hafiza Hafsa Majeed Copyright (c) 2024 Makhz (Research Journal) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-05-24 2024-05-24 5 2 353 368 10.47205/makhz.2024(5-II)urdu-25 Cultural Relics in Aziz Ahmed's Novel "Guraiz" https://ojs.makhz.org.pk/journal/article/view/246 <p>Aziz Ahmed's cultural awareness is clearly reflected in his fictional and non-fictional writings. Especially the Indian Muslim culture becomes the focus of his attention. His intellectual breadth prompts him to cover the Indian as well as the international situation of his era. Apart from this, his keen eye and study on history brings him to the fore in the form of a historical novelist and sometimes an Islamic scholar by grasping the historical and cultural contexts of centuries. Aziz Ahmed's non-fiction writings, "Nasl aor Sultanat", "Bar-e-Sagheer main Islami Culture", Bar-e-Sagheer main Islami Jadediyat, "An "Intellectual History of Islam in India" and "A history of Islamic Sicily" give him an important position as a cultural historian. Apart from these books, he did many important works based on his interest in culture, which are his books and articles. When a scholar who is interested in extensive knowledge and history also has the ability to create, his subconscious creates many new horizons of imagination, examples of which are the legendary and poetic works of Aziz Ahmed can be seen in. In the writings of Aziz Ahmed, the concepts of history and civilization go hand in hand and make their place in the heart of the reader. From the point of view of chronological order, each of his legendary stories. brings out some aspect of historical and cultural perspective. Although Aziz Ahmad described these novels as a reminder of his period of Jahiliyyah, the cultural basis in 'Hus' cannot be ignored in which the echoes of the breakdown of the values of the average Muslim society were beginning to be heard. In spite of all its flaws, the novel contains such raw material that furthers the work of deconstructing and reconstructing the cultural elements of the period. The binding of the curtain, the mental and physical stifling of noble babies and the consequences of this highlight the cultural context of this period. Below, Aziz Ahmed's fictional works, in his novel “Guraiz”. his concept of civilization will be discussed in chronological order so that the stages of the author's mental journey can also be reviewed.</p> Lubna Naseer Copyright (c) 2024 Makhz (Research Journal) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-05-25 2024-05-25 5 2 369 384 10.47205/makhz.2024(5-II)urdu-26 A Thematic Study of the Works of Art of Selected Humorists in the 21st Century https://ojs.makhz.org.pk/journal/article/view/247 <p>This paper conducts a thematic analysis of the works of art of prominent humorists in the 21st century, exploring the underlying themes and messages that permeate their creative output. Through a close reading of selected texts, images, and performances, this study reveals the ways in which contemporary humorists use humor to comment on pressing social issues, challenge cultural norms, and reflect the anxieties and absurdities of modern life. By examining the shared themes and techniques employed by these humorists, this research provides insight into the role of humor in shaping our understanding of the world and ourselves, and highlights the significance of humor as a means of social critique and personal expression in the 21st century.</p> Rifat Choudhry Copyright (c) 2024 Makhz (Research Journal) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-06-05 2024-06-05 5 2 385 408 10.47205/makhz.2024(5-II)urdu-27 Brahui Poets of the Persian Language https://ojs.makhz.org.pk/journal/article/view/248 <p>The Brahui ethnic group, primarily residing in parts of Pakistan, Iran, and Afghanistan, has historically shared deep-rooted connections with Persian through various domains including historical, social, financial, religious, and literary interactions. Persian served as the official, academic, and secondary religious language for the Muslim Umma, second only to Arabic. Recognized for its cultural richness and literary prestige, Persian was perceived as a language of pride, dignity, and intellectual capability. Consequently, many writers and poets out of Iran also wrote in Persian language. This prestige encouraged many Brahuis to compose poetry in Persian, thereby enriching its literary tradition. The article aims to introduce these Brahui poets, highlighting their pivotal role in promoting Persian language and poetry in their region. Through their works, these poets have not only preserved the linguistic and cultural heritage but also enhanced the literary landscape of Persian poetry.</p> Hafeezullah Sarparra Nizam Ud Din Muhammad Younas Copyright (c) 2024 Makhz (Research Journal) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-06-13 2024-06-13 5 2 409 426 10.47205/makhz.2024(5-II)urdu-28 The Role of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa in the Tradition of Urdu Novel https://ojs.makhz.org.pk/journal/article/view/249 <p>It is said that Fasana e Azad marks the start of Urdu novel, and thereafter, several authors contributed to the novel writing. Every novel represents society and serves as both the beginning and the end of an intellectual journey. Modern vocabulary and diction are also used to enhance contemporary novels. The KPK's novel writing is the main topic of this article. The notable authors in the KPK novel writing scene can be identified by their novel genre. In KPK, the first Urdu novel was released in 1903. Romantic stories, philosophical debates, Pashtun history and culture, terrorism, and extremism are all featured in KPK novel. These novels have a thematic and technical originality in addition to all of these themes. Even though there aren't many novels written in KPK, the ones that are now published are enhanced by contemporary themes and techniques. These methods and themes have been the subject of this study article's detailed concentration.</p> Syed Zubair Shah Qudrat Ullah Khan Copyright (c) 2024 Makhz (Research Journal) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-06-14 2024-06-14 5 2 427 448 10.47205/makhz.2024(5-II)urdu-29 Fathnameh of Azimuddin Thattavi: A Significant Historical and Literary Document of Sindh https://ojs.makhz.org.pk/journal/article/view/251 <p>For centuries, the Sindh region has utilized Persian as its primary language for scholarship, literature, history, and administration. Many writers and poets from Sindh have created influential works in various fields such as science, arts, culture, literature, history, and mysticism. Among these works, "Fathnameh" a Mathnawi by the esteemed poet Seyyed Azimuddin Thattavi, is particularly noteworthy. As the court poet of Mir Fath Ali Khan Talpur, Thattavi documents the conflicts, battles, and events during the Kalhora and Talpur dynasties' rule in Sindh. His first-hand accounts provide a detailed and valuable perspective, enhancing the historical and literary significance of the work. Additionally, Thattavi's poetic style closely follows the traditions of Ferdowsi's Shahnameh, adding further importance to his writing. This article introduces the book and its author, highlights its historical significance, and explores the political and historical context of Sindh. Our goal is to contribute to the preservation and promotion of Sindh's cultural, literary, and historical heritage.</p> Sohaila Bashindah Muhammad Nazir Copyright (c) 2024 Makhz (Research Journal) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-06-25 2024-06-25 5 2 449 465 10.47205/makhz.2024(5-II)urdu-30 A Character Study of the Fiction "Toba Tek Singh" https://ojs.makhz.org.pk/journal/article/view/252 <p>Saadat Hasan Manto is an all-round personality of Urdu literature. Manto appeared in the literary world as a translator, sketch writer, fiction writer, dramatist, essayist and letter writer and showed his skills in every genre but who The genre immortalized Manto's name forever. He was the most popular genre of prose literature, fiction. Manto is the milestone of Urdu fiction. Our fiction tradition is more natural than Saadat Hasan Manto, unreserved, unique, internal. And there is no mythicist with such inexplicable power. At the thematic level, there is a lot of diversity in Minto. In terms of themes, Minto's fictions are based on psychological, political and social issues. He has also written openly on the subject of freedom riots, prostitutes and sexual problems. He has also written numerous fictions on the riots. He also includes the collective events and problems that arose during the independence of the subcontinent in stories. He also tries to solve common human problems. Initiation also deals with the physical changes that occur during puberty. He also sheds light on psychological facts. Therefore, many aspects of life are the subjects of his fictions. Minto's perfect art is that he made the subject alive and immortal. Thus, the realities and bitterness of the entire era became part of his fictions.</p> Uswa Ilyas Bazghah Qandeel Copyright (c) 2024 Makhz (Research Journal) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-06-26 2024-06-26 5 2 466 474 10.47205/makhz.2024(5-II)urdu-31 A Morphological Study of Rakshani Dialect of Balochi https://ojs.makhz.org.pk/journal/article/view/253 <p>The Rakhshani dialect of Balochi is one of the major and widespread dialects of the Balochi language. It extends from south of Panjgur to the west of Kalat, from Kalat to Rod-e Hilmand in Afghanistan, and to the Záhidán and Saráwán areas of Iran. Although it has five sub-dialects, these sub-dialects share common morphological, honological, syntactic, and lexical structures. This paper illustrates the morphological structure of the Rakhshani dialect of the Balochi language.</p> Hanifa Bibi Hamid Ali Baloch Copyright (c) 2024 Makhz (Research Journal) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-06-29 2024-06-29 5 2 475 489 10.47205/makhz.2024(5-II)urdu-32 The Concept of Religion in the Fiction of Intizar Hussain https://ojs.makhz.org.pk/journal/article/view/254 <p>Intizar Hussain is one of the famous fiction writer of narrative literature۔You are a multi-talented literary personality. A glimpse of religious thoughts in Intisar Hussain. It is a Natural Thing that religious thoughts come up again and again. While living in the society, a person is bound many types of restriction ,be it social references, or ideology and religion ,he has to go thought the bitter experience of migration, in his stories, the power Seems to be influenced by the use of religious references and Dev Mala, Quranic legends, Bible, Old Testament Band and Sanimat, Buddha Stories have been describe in wonderful way by him۔In religious Values the image of life and the existence of man in the image of life ,the purpose of human and the social role of man in the image of life ۔So far Nine collection of his fiction have been published ,the themes which are different from each other, he was awarded the Sitara Imtiaz by the Government of Pakistan, and the highest literary honor of Pakistan ,the kamal fan award by Academy of literature Pakistan.</p> Fareeha Dilbar Bazghah Qandeel Copyright (c) 2024 Makhz (Research Journal) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 5 2 490 497 10.47205/makhz.2024(5-II)urdu-33 Akhtar Raza Salimi's Novel "Jinder" Features Gandhara Culture https://ojs.makhz.org.pk/journal/article/view/255 <p>The novel "Jinder" is a story from eternity, which began on the day when Hazrat Adam (peace be upon him) chewed the first grain of wheat. This story began as soon as man stepped on the earth and will continue until the trumpet is blown on the Day of Judgment. By eating the first grain of wheat, man had given his existence two grains of millet, and had torn his soul to the wire and the flesh on his body to the fiber. This story started running from the dark paths to the towers of light at the same time when Hazrat Insan first threw a few grains on a stone and hit another stone to fill the hell of his stomach. Of course, he would not have been able to strike the first blow well. The grains that were scattered by his wrong injury were scattered in such a way that even today man is still searching for these grains.</p> Aftab Ahmed Rizwana Bibi Muhammad Rizwan Khan Copyright (c) 2024 Makhz (Research Journal) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 5 2 498 514 10.47205/makhz.2024(5-II)urdu-34 Prominent Themes of Local Poetry in Pakistan and their Relationship with Urdu https://ojs.makhz.org.pk/journal/article/view/257 <p>Apart from Urdu, many languages are spoken in Pakistan, some of them are small and some are big according to the number of speakers, but despite being the languages of Pakistan, they are strangers in their country, their country and confined in limited areas. Have been done. The main reason for this is that there is no organization at the government level to connect these languages with each other and to make a plan together with each other. The national language of Pakistan is Urdu and the official language is English. Correspondence in the offices is in English and common colloquialism is in Urdu. Boards are written in English and spelled in Urdu or local language. From a cultural point of view, Urdu was also not a language of Pakistan but a foreign language. Before the formation of Pakistan, the local languages of the region are spoken here. This article is based on the relation with poetry of Urdu with local languages of Pakistan.</p> Uzma Hassan Copyright (c) 2024 Makhz (Research Journal) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-07-02 2024-07-02 5 2 515 532 10.47205/makhz.2024(5-II)urdu-35 Pakistaniat and Fall of Dhaka https://ojs.makhz.org.pk/journal/article/view/258 <p>This paper examines the role of Pakistaniat, an ideology that emphasizes a unified Pakistani identity, in the events leading up to the Fall of Dhaka in 1971. The Fall of Dhaka marked the surrender of Pakistani forces to the Indian military and the subsequent independence of East Pakistan, now Bangladesh. Through a historical and political analysis, this paper argues that the imposition of Pakistaniat on East Pakistan contributed to the marginalization of Bengali identity and culture, ultimately leading to the demand for independence. The paper also explores how the military and political establishment's insistence on a unified Pakistani identity fueled the conflict and ultimately led to the downfall of East Pakistan. This research provides new insights into the complex relationship between identity, politics, and conflict in the region.</p> Saba Nazir Shaista Hameed Khan Copyright (c) 2024 Makhz (Research Journal) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-07-09 2024-07-09 5 2 533 542 10.47205/makhz.2024(5-II)urdu-36 A Critical and Analytical Study of Akhtar Zaman Akhtar's Hindko Poetry https://ojs.makhz.org.pk/journal/article/view/259 <p>Akhtar Zaman Akhtar is not a newcomer to the world of poetry, but so far only one of his poetry collections has been praised by critics. "Deve Tale Nehera" is the first Hindko poetry collection by Akhtar Zaman Akhtar, published in January 2016 by Jamal School, Lahore. The real secret of the acceptance and greatness of the poet is not based on the abundance or scarcity of words, but rather, the language and characteristics of the poems lead to his fame and notoriety. From this point of view, the twenty-six poems of Akhtar Zaman Akhtar are special and common. Akhtar Zaman Akhtar shows a flair for Hindko and Urdu, but his dominant inclination is towards Hindko poetry Akhtar Zaman Akhtar shows a flair for Hindko and Urdu, but his dominant inclination is towards Hindko poetry. Thus, they show their devotion to their mother tongue. It seems that they have dedicated themselves to promoting and developing the Hindko language. He has covered the issues of love and emigration and separation, the bitter and harsh realities of human life side by side in his ghazal templates with great skill. His poetry is a reflection of realism rather than romanticism. Akhtar has seen human life very closely, which is proved by his poetry.</p> Nazakat Hussain Muhammad Nasir Afridi Zeenat Bibi Copyright (c) 2024 Makhz (Research Journal) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-07-10 2024-07-10 5 2 543 557 10.47205/makhz.2024(5-II)urdu-37